The Government of Indonesia has imposed Enforcement of Restrictions on Community Activities (PPKM) in anticipation of the spread of the COVID-19 virus and its impact on the business world and people’s lives in general. One of the impacts is the considerable influence on activities in the education sector. Some of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on education that can be mentioned include the widespread closure of all schools, especially in Indonesia. Starting from early childhood education, primary and secondary schools to universities.
Based on the data from the Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia (Kemendikbud RI) regarding the condition of education and schools (Elementary, Junior High, High School, and Vocational), in 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic did not have a significant impact on teaching and learning activities. There was a growth in the number of schools by 1.00% (y-o-y) to 218,239 units and the number of students by 1.03% (y-o-y) to 45,540,669 people. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of students repeating by 11.71% (y-o-y) to 361.127 people and a decrease in the number of students dropping out of school by 47.81% (y-o-y) to 157,166 people. The increase is based on the government’s support in meeting the educational needs of the community, namely by providing education subsidies and free or low-cost learning facilities for the entire community (especially the underprivileged).
However, in addition to the positive increase, the government was worried about the lagging of material delivery compared to other countries because in Indonesia and several other countries teaching and learning activities were hampered by different levels of pandemic conditions. To anticipate further lags in the education delivery process, a distance learning system is used and an online education platform is opened to reach students without direct physical contact. In connection with this transformation, the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud) also took policies as a guide in dealing with the disease at the education unit level (Kemendikbud, 2020).
In the transformation process, there were several sectors that benefited from the increased contribution from the Education sector. The sector is the Information, Technology and Communication (ITC) sector. There has been an increase in purchases of computer equipment, use of the internet, and online communication media from the education sector.
Based on the latest data in 2020, there was an increase in internet use among students, students, and university students in Indonesia which reached 6.27% (y-o-y) or 59.33%. This increase is related to the need for the internet to carry out online-based teaching and learning activities (KBM) carried out by all schools and universities in Indonesia.
In addition to the increase in internet consumption, there is an increase in the use of online communication platforms as well as the purchase of computers, smartphones and tablets which are tools for conducting online activities.
In contrast to the ITC sector, there are several sectors that have experienced a decline due to the impact of these online activities, one of which is the printing sector, especially for the book printing and publishing industry.
Based on www.liputan6.com, the revenue of the book printing and publishing industry fell by 80% (y-o-y) during the Covid-19 pandemic. The decline in revenue was due to the closure of a number of bookstores and online teaching and learning activities.
Many book publishers are affected because they are bound and connected to a model that the majority still relies on modern bookstores. When bookstores are affected and have to close, many publishers automatically lose revenues of up to 70-80% (y-o-y).
However, to modify their revenue, a number of publishers have made various efforts to survive. One of them is intensively conducting sales variations through online or digital systems.
In addition to these sectors, there are several other sectors that are also affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and online-based teaching and learning activities, namely a decrease in the purchase of school uniforms for the Textile and Textile Products (TPT) sector, a decrease in the purchase of stationery in the Stationery Industry sector, and decreased demand for services in the transportation sector (the absence of student pick-up and use of public transportation by students and school staff).